Tag Archives: CPE

Graphing near realtime PPPoE/PPPoA link speed using SNMP Traffic Grapher (STG to its friends)

Sometimes it happens to me that, for troubleshooting reasons, I need to graph PPPoE or PPPoA connections speed from the NAS/BRAS side. These links are terminated on Cisco routers, where other hundreds of CPEs are connected; connections are from dialin users and I can’t have static graphs, mostly because I don’t need endusers monitoring on a fulltime basis and it would only be a huge waste of resources.

In this case a little program helps me: STG, SNMPTrafficGrapher.

STG - SNMPTrafficGrapher

STG – SNMPTrafficGrapher

It’s a small Windows utility that uses SNMP to get counters data and put them on a graph, like MRTG does. It’s easy and fast to deploy (run it, set SNMP OID and it’s ready), does not use many resources and can give you graphs updated every second.


From the View / Settings menu you just have to set the device’s IP address and SNMP community, and then to select OID and polling frequency.

As said, users have dialin connections which go up and down and there is no way to predict their SNMP interface’s index; to obtain the right OID we can use the show snmp mib ifmib ifindex command.

Initially we get the actual Virtual-Access interface for the user we need to monitor:

Router#sh users | include MyUserName
  Vi1.195      MyUserName	   PPPoATM      -

Then we get it’s SNMP index:

Router#show snmp mib ifmib ifindex Virtual-Access 1.195
Interface = Virtual-Access1.195, Ifindex = 257

And finally we can use it to configure STG:

STG setup

Geen OID = (ifInOctets.257)
Blue OID = (ifOutOctets.257)

Where 257 is the dynamic SNMP ifIndex of our user’s Virtual-Access interface.


STG homepage: http://leonidvm.chat.ru/

Zabbix: a lightweight dynamic template for SNMP routers

I built the following Zabbix template to monitor small routers, with just two interfaces (WAN and LAN), which have been deployed as CPE for some customers.

What I needed was only interfaces monitoring, such as traffic, packets, status, but I needed to configure it for many etherogeneous devices, that means different SNMP indexing and naming.

I decided to build a small SNMP-based template using dynamic parameters and host macros.

Each template’s item has an SNMP OID value containing a macro reference:

Description: LAN - Description
Type: SNMPv2 agent
Key: ifDescr-LAN

Description: LAN - In Octets
Type: SNMPv2 agent
Key: ifInOctets-LAN

Description: WAN - Description
Type: SNMPv2 agent
Key: ifDescr-WAN


On each host you apply this template to you need to add two macros, {$LAN_IF_IDX} and {$WAN_IF_IDX}, containing the value of the LAN and WAN interface SNMP index:

In order to understand which value to use in the macro you can “ask it” to your router or run a snmpwalk on it:

CiscoRouter#show snmp mib ifmib ifindex FastEthernet 0/0
Interface = FastEthernet0/0, Ifindex = 1

root@NMS:~# snmpwalk -v 2c -c public .
iso. = STRING: "FastEthernet0/0"
iso. = STRING: "FastEthernet0/1"
iso. = STRING: "VoIP-Null0"
iso. = STRING: "Null0"
iso. = STRING: "Loopback1"

The template includes interfaces description, status, traffic (in bps and packets per second), a trigger to detect status transition and graphs.

You can find the Zabbix Template_Lightweight_Dynamic_SNMPv2_Router here; instructions about importing the template can be found on the Zabbix documentation web site.

OpenACS configuration and scripting

As first, congrats to Audrys, aka au3, OpenACS author; I played a little with OpenACS and it seems to be a really good TR-069 framework, even if in beta version.

In the last days I have found some bugs, immediately fixed by the author in the svn version; at this time (svn revision 181 and release 0.03) I suggest you to download the latest svn version and compile it (on Debian you need subversion package):

svn co http://openacs.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/openacs openacs
ant -f b.xml
cp dist/acs.ear /opt/jboss/server/default/deploy/

If you already have it running, be aware you need to drop db tables and lets the svn version to create them.

OpenACS exposes a javascript engine you can use to implement your configuration server logic. Of course, you need to know TR-069 (CWMP) and related Technical Reports; you can find these documents here: Broadband Forum Technical Reports

OpenACS runs the “Default” script for each Inform request it receives: in this script you can do your business and call other script.
On each script you can access objects exposed by OpenACS: you can find some information on the OpenACS wiki page on SourceForge.

You can find a Default script example at the end of this post.

Actually I’m testing OpenACS with AVM Fritz!Box Fon 7170 and they really speak the same language! Firmware upgrade and configuration changes work good, I have not yet tested parameter attributes and notification changes.

If you are interested in this matter, stay tuned! 😉

My Default script:

var i;
var sData;

sData = 'n==========================================================';
sData += 'nDeviceId:';
sData += 'n   Manufacturer: ' + cpe.Inform.DeviceId.Manufacturer;
sData += 'n   OUI: ' + cpe.Inform.DeviceId.OUI;
sData += 'n   ProductClass: ' + cpe.Inform.DeviceId.ProductClass;
sData += 'n   SerialNumber: ' + cpe.Inform.DeviceId.SerialNumber;
sData += 'nMisc:';
sData += 'n   MaxEnvelopes: ' + cpe.Inform.MaxEnvelopes;
sData += 'n   RetryCount: ' + cpe.Inform.RetryCount;
sData += 'n   CurrentTime: ' + cpe.Inform.CurrentTime;

sData += 'nEvents:' ;

for( i=0; i<=cpe.Inform.Event.length-1; i++ )
   sData += 'n   ' + cpe.Inform.Event[i].EventCode+' ['+cpe.Inform.Event[i].CommandKey + ']';

sData += 'nParams:';

for( i=0; i<=cpe.Inform.ParameterList.length-1; i++ )
   sData += 'n   ' + cpe.Inform.ParameterList[i].Name+'='+cpe.Inform.ParameterList[i].Value;

sData += 'n';
sData += 'n==========================================================';

logger( sData );

// ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
for( i=0; i<=cpe.Inform.ParameterList.length-1; i++ )
       switch ( cpe.Inform.ParameterList[i].Name )
               case 'InternetGatewayDevice.ManagementServer.ParameterKey':
                       cpedb.ManagementServer_ParameterKey = cpe.Inform.ParameterList[i].Value;

               case 'InternetGatewayDevice.DeviceInfo.SpecVersion':
                       cpedb.DeviceInfo_SpecVersion = cpe.Inform.ParameterList[i].Value;

               case 'InternetGatewayDevice.DeviceInfo.HardwareVersion':
                       cpedb.DeviceInfo_HardwareVersion = cpe.Inform.ParameterList[i].Value;

               case 'InternetGatewayDevice.DeviceInfo.SoftwareVersion':
                       cpedb.DeviceInfo_SoftwareVersion = cpe.Inform.ParameterList[i].Value;

               case 'InternetGatewayDevice.DeviceInfo.ProvisioningCode':
                       cpedb.DeviceInfo_ProvisioningCode = cpe.Inform.ParameterList[i].Value;

               case 'InternetGatewayDevice.ManagementServer.ConnectionRequestURL':
                       cpedb.ManagementServer_ConnectionRequestURL = cpe.Inform.ParameterList[i].Value;

                       if( cpe.Inform.ParameterList[i].Name.indexOf( 'InternetGatewayDevice.WANDevice.' ) >= 0 )
                               cpedb.DefaultWANConnection = cpe.Inform.ParameterList[i].Name.substr( 0, cpe.Inform.ParameterList[i].Name.indexOf( '.ExternalIPAddress' ) );
                               cpedb.DefaultWANConnection_ExternalIPAddress = cpe.Inform.ParameterList[i].Value;

var sEvent;
var sCommandKey;
for( i=0; i<=cpe.Inform.Event.length-1; i++ )
       sEvent = cpe.Inform.Event[i].EventCode;
       sCommandKey = cpe.Inform.Event[i].CommandKey;

       switch ( sEvent )
               case '0 BOOTSTRAP':

               case '1 BOOT':

               case '2 PERIODIC':

               case '3 SCHEDULED':

               case '4 VALUE CHANGE':

               case '5 KICKED':

               case '6 CONNECTION REQUEST':

               case '7 TRANSFER COMPLETE':

               case '8 DIAGNOSTICS COMPLETE':


Installing TR-069 OpenACS on a fresh Debian setup

As the title says, OpenACS is a TR-069 based automatic configuration server, implementing CPE configuration protocol CWMP.
It’s an opensource project you can find on Source Forge (http://sourceforge.net/projects/openacs/), actually in Beta status.

I put here a brief HowTo to have it running on a fresh Debian setup. Of course, the result of this installation if for testing purpose only, and not for production environment.

EDIT: I tested this on both Debian 4.0 (Etch) and Debian 5.0 (Lenny) and it’s working fine.

I still didn’t test its features, actually I just had it running.
As soon as I get TR-069 capable CPEs and a bit of time to test them I will add more content in the blog!

Install JDK 1.5

Make sure to have “contrib” in your apt source list; if you don’t have, add and update aptitude.

nano /etc/apt/sources.list

deb http://YOUR_MIRROR/debian/ etch main contrib
deb-src http://YOUR_MIRROR/debian/ etch main contrib

Install some utilities to build JDK Debian package:

apt-get install java-package fakeroot

As non-root user, get Sun JDK 5.0 Update 17 from http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/download.jsp (non-RPM file):

wget URL

Build the Debian package

fakeroot make-jpkg jdk-1_5_0_17-linux-i586.bin

Install the .deb package (as root)

dpkg -i sun-j2sdk1.5_1.5.0+update17_i386.deb

Install JBoss

Get JBoss Application Server 4.2.2 zip file from http://www.jboss.org/download/:

wget URL

Unzip it:

unzip jboss-4.2.2.GA.zip -d /opt/
cd /opt
mv jboss-4.2.2.GA/ jboss

Run the server to test it:

cd /opt/jboss/bin
./run.sh -b

If the server fails starting, check it’s using the right Java VM; you can edit the bin/run.conf file and set JAVA_HOME=”/usr/lib/j2sdk1.5-sun”

Test the server: browse the homepage at http://YOUR_IP_ADDRESS:8080/

Hit CTRL+C to stop the server.

Install MySQL

apt-get install mysql-server-5.0

Install MySql Connector/J

Get Connector/J from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/connector/j/5.1.html

wget URL

Extract and put mysql-connector-java-5.1.7-bin.jar into jboss/server/default/lib/

tar -xzvf mysql-connector-java-5.1.7.tar.gz
cd mysql-connector-java-5.1.7
mv mysql-connector-java-5.1.7-bin.jar /opt/jboss/server/default/lib/

Compile and deploy OpenACS

Install Apache Ant:

apt-get install ant

Get openacs-src file (openacs-src-0.03.zip) from SourceForge:

wget URL
unzip openacs-src-0.03.zip
cd openacs

Edit build.properties and set the right path to jboss (jboss=/opt/jboss/server/default)

nano build.properties

Edit the web.xml file and set the right path to the firmware directory (org.openacs.fwbase context-param):

nano acs-war/web/WEB-INF/web.xml

[… cut …]
        <description>Path for firmware images</description>
[… cut …]
Run ant to build OpenACS


Copy dist/acs.ear to jboss/server/default/deploy:

cp dist/acs.ear /opt/jboss/server/default/deploy/

Create and edit jboss/server/default/deploy/openacs-ds.xml, configuring data source

nano /opt/jboss/server/default/deploy/openacs-ds.xml


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

Create openacs-service.xml in jboss/server/default/deploy/jms

nano /opt/jboss/server/default/deploy/jms/openacs-service.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <mbean code="org.jboss.mq.server.jmx.Queue" name="jboss.mq.destination:service=Queue,name=acsQueue">
        <depends optional-attribute-name="DestinationManager">jboss.mq:service=DestinationManager</depends>

Create ACS database and openacs user on MySQL, as in openacs-ds.xml:

GRANT ALL ON ACS.* TO openacs IDENTIFIED BY 'openacs';

Create ACS tables:

echo "CREATE TABLE HardwareModelBean (
  id int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment,
  oui varchar(250) default NULL,
  hclass varchar(250) default NULL,
  DisplayName varchar(250) default NULL,
  manufacturer varchar(250) default NULL,

  id int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment,
  serialno varchar(250) default NULL,
  url varchar(250) default NULL,
  configname varchar(250) default NULL,
  currentsoftware varchar(250) default NULL,
  sfwupdtime timestamp NOT NULL default CURRENT_TIMESTAMP on update CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
  sfwupdres varchar(250) default NULL,
  cfgupdres varchar(250) default NULL,
  lastcontact timestamp NOT NULL default '0000-00-00 00:00:00',
  cfgupdtime timestamp NOT NULL default '0000-00-00 00:00:00',
  hardware varchar(250) default NULL,
  cfgversion varchar(250) default NULL,
  props longblob,
  hwid int(11) default NULL,
  username varchar(250) default NULL,
  password varchar(250) default NULL,
  authtype int(11) default NULL,
  customerid varchar(250) default NULL,
  conrequser varchar(250) default NULL,
  conreqpass varchar(250) default NULL,

CREATE TABLE ConfigurationBean (
  name varchar(250) NOT NULL,
  hardware varchar(250) default NULL,
  config longblob,
  filename varchar(250) default NULL,
  version varchar(250) default NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY  (name)

  name varchar(250) NOT NULL,
  script longblob,
  description varchar(250) default NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY  (name)

CREATE TABLE SoftwareBean (
  hardware varchar(250) NOT NULL,
  version varchar(250) NOT NULL,
  minversion varchar(250) default NULL,
  url varchar(250) default NULL,
  size bigint(20) NOT NULL,
  filename varchar(250) default NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY  (hardware,version)
);" | mysql ACS;

Create the firmware directory:

mkdir /firmware

Run the server:

cd /opt/jboss/bin
./run.sh -b

Browse the OpenACS web interface at http://YOUR_IP_ADDRESS:8080/openacs/index.jsf

Some useful links:
OpenACS Wiki: http://openacs.wiki.sourceforge.net/
Getting JDK 1.5 and Tomcat 5.5 up and running in Debian Linux: http://nileshk.com/node/36
JBoss on Debian quickstart: http://lorenzod8n.wordpress.com/2008/03/02/jboss-on-debian-quickstart/